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Department of Linguistics

Australian English: Pronunciation and Transcription

Felicity Cox

Cambridge University Press, 2012.


Chapter 4 Examples

Table 4.1 4.5.3 Syllabic /l/
Table 4.2 4.6.2 Epenthetic Consonants
Diagnostic Sentences 4.8.1 Assimilation of alveolar to bilabial
4.4.1 Primary Stress 4.8.2 Assimilation of alveolar to velar
4.4.2 Secondary Stress 4.8.3 Assimilation of alveolar to postalveolar
4.4.3 Compound Words 4.8.4 Word internal assimilation
4.4.4 Unstressed Syllables 4.8.5 Affrication
4.5.1 Syllabic /n/ 4.9 Consonant Deletion/elision
4.5.2 Syllabic /m/ 4.10 Voicing of Stops, Fricatives and Affricates
Australian English Consonants

Word List from Table 4.1

    Voiceless     Voiced
Oral Stops (Plosives)          
Bilabial audio pie   audio buy
Alveolar audio tie   audio die
Velar audio kite   audio guy
Postalveolar audio chin   audio gin
Labiodental audio fie   audio vie
Dental audio thigh   audio thy
Alveolar audio sigh   audio zoo
Postalveolar audio shy   audio Asia
Glottal audio high    
Nasals (nasal stops)          
Bilabial       audio my
Alveolar       audio nigh
Velar       audio hang
Labiovelar       audio why
Palatal       audio you
Alveolar lateral       audio lie
Postalveolar       audio rye

Word List from Table 4.2

  Long Vowels   Short Vowels
audio beat audio bit
audio cared audio bet
    audio bat
audio Bart audio but
    audio pot
audio bought audio put
audio boot    
audio Bert    
    audio the (not "thee")
audio bait    
audio bite    
audio Boyd    
audio boat    
audio bout    
audio beard    
Diagnostic Sentences
a. audio The children were busy building bridges and pretty women solved mysteries near damaged eucalypts.
b. audio These city people eat eel while police seize debris from the fields.
c. audio Her pen friend said she met many leopards leisurely headed west for better weather.
d. audio

The millionaire didn’t care that his scared heir was wary of prayer.

e. audio

Jan’s cat scratched my hand while attacking dancing Atlantic salmon.

f. audio In a bizarre heart-stopping farce, father laughed as the guard’s car started down the path after Aunt Marge.
g. audio

The couple lunched with their son under the floodlights at the front of the punt.

h. audio On John’s yacht we scoffed hot sausages and watched the seagulls quarrel and cough.
i. audio

The court order warned that we all ought to obey the law and walk out the door before we’re caught.

j. audio

Should the courier wolf down the full pudding the good woman cooked?

k. audio

Two news crews who queued for food got beautiful fruit on Tuesday.

l. audio Colonel Byrne turned a perfect first sojourn into the worst journey on Earth.
m. audio

The foreign composers, Beryl and Michael, promised to write another thoroughly awesome anthem about the mountains.

n. audio Waiting for the ballet matinee they tasted champagne and ate steak in a cafe.
o. audio The island choir might guide us in style through a night of fine dining.
p. audio

Roy’s lawyer was buoyed by the boiled oyster.

q. audio

Clowns ploughing the ground are now outlawed in our town.

r. audio

Joe sews old coats and knows a bowl of cocoa soothes the soul.

s. audio The weird bearded seer heard cheering near the pier.
4.4.1 Primary Stress
  audio above
  audio delight
  audio commute
  audio comply
  audio lantern
  audio petrol
  audio oxygen
  audio giant
4.4.2 secondary Stress
  audio phonological
  audio apologetic
  audio aphrodite
  audio deliberation
  audio environmental
  audio editorial
  audio indefatigable
  audio economic
  audio vaccine
  audio triumph
  audio anecdote
  audio insulate
  audio cemetary
  audio porcupine
  audio helicopter
  audio vegemite
  audio melancholy
  audio systematise
  audio alliterate
  audio methane
  audio sterile
4.4.3 compound words
  audio football
  audio blackboard
  audio newspaper
  audio surfboard
  audio ladybird
  audio underwear
4.4.4 unstressed syllables
  audio abduct
  audio admit
  audio combine
  audio confirmation
  audio condition
  audio elaborate
  audio patrol
  audio watches
Unstressed /ɪ/
  audio stomach
  audio cabbage
  audio marriage
  audio barrack
  audio paddock
  audio language
  audio radish
  audio music
  audio communism
  audio running
Unstressed /iː/, /ʉː/ and /əʉ/
  audio podium
  audio junior
  audio serious
  audio tenuous
  audio factual
  audio sensual
  audio appreciation
  audio influential
  audio very
  audio city
  audio every
  audio potato
  audio barrow
  audio banjo

4.5.1 SYLLABIC /n/

  audio button
  audio sadden
  audio dozen
  audio fasten
  audio happen
  audio robin
  audio heaven
  audio cushion
  audio Persian
  audio slacken
  audio toboggan

4.5.2 SYLLABIC /m/

  audio album
  audio possum
  audio chasm

4.5.3 SYLLABIC /l/

  audio cattle
  audio middle
  audio castle
  audio muzzle
  audio final
  audio table
  audio apple
  audio haggle
  audio offal
  audio bushel
  audio satchel
  audio angel


Linking and Intrusive 'r'

  audio the car
  audio the car seat
  audio the car alarm
  audio Ma and Pa
  audio pasta and sauce
  audio drawing
  audio law and order

Linking /w/ and /j/

  audio I am
  audio you are

Other epenthetic consonants

  without epenthesis with epenthesis  
  audio audio hamster
  audio audio monster
  audio audio sense/cents


  audio might pay
  audio might bite
  audio might meet
  audio should pay
  audio should bite
  audio should meet
  audio seen Pam
  audio seen Bill
  audio seen Mike
  audio seen Wendy


  audio might come
  audio might go
  audio should come
  audio should go
  audio seen Ken
  audio seen Gay
  audio fine cotton
  audio fun game


  audio this ship
  audio these shoes
  audio this year
  audio tells you
  audio in case you need it
  audio has your letter come?


  audio goodbye
  audio tadpole
  audio unmotivated
  audio horseshoe
  audio star time
  audio start time


  audio shut your eyes
  audio did you?


Other epenthetic consonants

  Full Form Delated Stop  
  audio audio amends
  audio audio handful
  audio audio directly
  audio audio investment
  Full Form Delated Stop  
  audio audio next day
  audio audio old man


{-s} morpheme (verb 3rd person singular present tense, or noun plural)

  audio glasses
  audio mazes
  audio lashes
  audio collages
  audio catches
  audio hedges
  audio dogs
  audio pads
  audio bins
  audio eyes
  audio cats
  audio tips
  audio packs
  audio cliffs

{-ed} morpheme (verb past tense)

  audio wanted
  audio guided
  audio rowed
  audio dodged
  audio tossed
  audio walked