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Department of Linguistics

Australian English: Pronunciation and Transcription

Felicity Cox

Cambridge University Press, 2012.

 

Chapter 5 Examples

5.2.2 Aspiration and release 5.2.10 Gemination
5.2.3 Variants of /t/ 5.2.11 Labialisation
5.2.4 Devoicing 5.3.1 Coarticulation and dialect effects
5.2.5 Velar assimilation 5.3.2 Prelateral contexts
5.2.6 Alveolar assimilation 5.3.3 Nasalisation
5.2.7 Syllabic consonants 5.3.4 Allophones /eː/and /ɪə/
5.2.8 Clear and dark /l/ 5.3.6 Allophonic vowel length
5.2.9 Allophones of /h/  
5.2.2 aspiration and release of oral stops
  audio pay
  audio tea
  audio car
  audio plough
  audio press
  audio pew
  audio tray
  audio twice
  audio click
  audio cry
  audio cute
  audio my train
  audio might rain
  audio may dread
  audio made red
  audio spit
  audio stack
  audio scar
  audio splay
  audio stripe
  audio squeak
  audio carbonaceous
  audio helicopter
  audio potato
  audio collect
  audio percolator
  audio procrastinate
  audio cretaceous
  audio platonic

Syllable and word final (VC) oral stops

  Released Unreleased  
  audio audio map
  audio audio squeak
  audio audio tired
  audio audio wink
  audio audio fade
  audio audio jog

Spirantised /t/

  audio Pete
  audio great
  audio bite

Unreleased /t/

  audio act
  audio robbed

Preglotalisation

  With Glottal Without Glottal  
  audio audio clock
  audio audio dessert
  audio audio dollop

Nasal Release

  audio button
  audio sadden
  audio happen

Lateral Release

  audio cattle
  audio lightly
  audio middle
  audio Bradley

5.2.3 VARIANTS OF /t/

Flapping

  audio writer
  audio shutter
  audio cotton
  audio cattle
  audio bottle
  audio bottom
  audio faulty
  audio laughter

Nasal taps

  audio hunter
  audio ninety

Glottal Stops

  audio button
  audio cotton
  audio butler
  audio lighthouse
  audio not now

Glottal Stops as Hiatus Fillers

  audio the elephant
  audio to eat

5.2.4 DEVOICING

Devoicing of oral stops, fricatives and affricates

  audio cab
  audio phase
  audio loathe
  audio lunge

Devoicing of approximants following voiceless fricatives

  audio Fred
  audio sweep
  audio smack
  audio my snow
  audio mice know
  audio go shrug
  audio gauche rug
  audio you throw
  audio youth row

5.2.5 ASSIMILATION OF VELAR ORAL STOPS

Velar fronting

  audio keen
  audio cute
  audio geese

Velar retraction

  audio caught
  audio gaudy

5.2.6 ASSIMILATION OF ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS

Alveolar to labiodental nasals before [f] and [v]

  audio circumference
  audio home front
  audio infant
  audio in vain

Alveolar to dental before dentals

  audio tenth
  audio ten things
  audio eighth
  audio out there
  audio wealth

Alveolar to postalveolar before postalveolars

  audio try
  audio dry
  audio enrol

Alveolar to palatal before /j/

  audio onion
  audio union
  audio on your own
5.2.7 SYLLABIC CONSONANTS

 

  audio middle
  audio sudden
  audio cattle
  audio muzzle
  audio often
  audio cushion

Assimilation creating syllabics

  audio happen
  audio cotton gown
  audio wagon

Non-syllabic

  audio salmon
  audio linen
  audio melon

5.2.8 CLEAR AND DARK REALISATIONS OF /l/

Clear /l/

  audio leaf
  audio law
  audio black

Dark /l/

  audio feel
  audio field
  audio feel fine

Syllabic /l/

  audio table
  audio muddle
  audio Gatling
  audio Catalan

Before a morpheme boundary - dark /l/

  audio feeling
  audio sellout

Before /j/ - dark /l/

  audio value
  audio million

After a morpheme boundary - clear /l/

  audio delight
  audio dandelion

Vocalised /l/

  Velarised Vocalised  
  audio audio milk
  audio audio noodle

5.2.9 ALLOPHONES OF /h/

  audio ahead
  audio head
  audio huge
  audio Hugh

5.2.10 GEMINATION

  audio some mothers
  audio some others
  audio start time
  audio star time

5.2.11 LABIALISATION

  audio sweep
  audio soup

5.3.1 COARTICULATION AND DIALECT EFFECTS

  audio hand
  audio bell
  audio feud
  audio pool

5.3.2 PRELATERAL CONTEXTS

  audio dole
  audio foal
  audio old
  audio hole
  audio doll audio dole
  audio polish audio Polish
  audio goalie (dark /l/)
  audio slowly (clear /l/)
  audio pool
  audio school

5.3.3 NASALISATION

  audio ant
  audio luna
  audio pint

5.3.4 ALLOPHONES OF /eː/and /ɪə/

  audio care
  audio caring
  audio hear
  audio hearing

5.3.6 ALLOPHONIC VOWEL LENGTH

  audio heart
  audio hard
  audio cut
  audio cud
  audio bed audio bared
  audio bud audio bard

The BAD-LAD split

  short  
  audio pad
  audio cad
  audio lad
  audio had
  long  
  audio mad
  audio sad
  audio bad
  audio glad