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Department of Linguistics

A Bibliography of Readings on Speech Perception, Speech Audiometry and Intelligibiity Testing

Note: A large part of this bibliography is derived from a bibliography compiled by John Clark during the late 1980's. This bibliography is now quite dated and will hopefully be updated in the near future. Even in its present form, however, it provides references to many of the studies that have formed the basis of speech testing, whether that testing be of speech technology or of human hearing.

Students in SPH307 should note that this list does not represent required reading for this course. It has been supplied as a resource that you might find useful in the future.

Some Useful Books on Speech Perception or Hearing

Moore, B.C.J. (ed.) Frequency selectivity in hearing, Academic P., 1986

Moore, B.C.J. An introduction to the psychology of hearing, 4th edn., Academic, 1997

Moore, B.C.J. Perceptual consequences of cochlear damage, Oxford, 1995

Pickles, J.O. An introduction to the physiology of hearing, Academic, 1988

Sanders, D.A. Auditory Perception of Speech, Prentice-Hall, 1977.

Wever, E.G, Theory of hearing, Dover, 1970

General References on Speech Testing

Singh, S. Measurement Procedures in Speech, Hearing and Language, University Park Press, 1975

Bench, J. & Bamford, J., Speech-Hearing Tests and the Spoken Language of Hearing-impaired children, Academic Press, 1979

Mackie, K.C. & Dermody, P.J., Word Intelligibility Tests in Audiology for the Assessment of Communication Adequacy, NAL Report No 89, 1982

Early Studies of Speech Intelligibility

Fletcher, H. & Steinberg, J.C. "Articulation testing methods", Bell System Technical Journal, 8, 1929, 809-854

Knudsen, V.O. & Jones, I.H., "Basic principles underlying tests of hearing", Laryngoscope, 45, 1935, 1-23

Egan, J.P., "Articulation testing methods", Laryngoscope, 58, 1948 , 955-981

Beranek, L.L. Acoustic Measurements, John Wiley & Sons, 1949, pp 625-635, pp 761-792

Hirsh, I.J. The Measurement of Hearing, McGraw-Hill, 1952, Ch.5

Factors Affecting Speech Intelligibility

a. Historical Perspective

French, N.R. & Steinberg, J.C. "Factors governing the intelligibility of speech sounds", JASA, 19, 1947, 90-119

b. Speaker Characteristics

Silverstein, B. et al, "The relative intelligibility of male and female talkers", Journal of Educational Psychology, 44, 1953, 418-428

Brandy, W.T., "Reliability of voice tests of speech discrimination", JSHR, 9, 1966, 461-465

Pickett, J.M., "Effects of vocal force on the intelligibility of speech sounds", JASA, 28, 1956, 902-905

Pickett, J.M. & Pollack, I., "Intelligibility of excerpts from fluent speech: Effects of rate of utterance and duration of excerpt", Language & Speech, 3, 1963, 151-164

Nober, E.H. & Seymour, H.N., "Speaker intelligibility of black and white school children for black and white adult listeners under varying listening conditions", Language & Speech, 3, 1979,237-242

Palmer, J.M., "The effect of speaker differences on the intelligibility of phonetically balanced word lists", JSHD, 20, 1, 1955, 192-195

c. Speech Waveform Distortion

Licklider, J.C.R., "Effects of amplitude distortion on the intelligibility of speech", JASA, 18, 1946, 429-434

Licklider, J.C.R. & Pollack, I., "Effects of differentiation, integration, and infinite peak clipping upon the intelligibility of speech", JASA, 20. 1948

Miller, G.A. & Licklider, J.C.R., "The intelligibility of interrupted speech", JASA, 22, 1950, 167-173

Flanagan, J.L., "Effect of delay distortion upon the intelligibility and quality of speech", JASA, 23, 1951, 303-307

Williams, C.E. & Hecker, M.H.L., "Relations between intelligibility scores for four test methods and three types of speech distortion", JASA, 44, 1968, 1002-1006

d. Speech Waveform Filtering

French & Steinberg (1947)

Fletcher, H., Speech and Hearing in Communication, Van Nostrand, 1953, ch.18. (reprinted in D.B. Fry (ed.) Acoustic Phonetics, Cambridge University Press, 1976)

Miller, G.A. & Nicely, P.E., "An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants", JASA, 27, 338-352, 1955

e. Speech Waveform Masking

Stevens, S.S., Miller, J. & Truscott, I., "The masking of speech by sine waves, square waves, and regular and modulated pulses", JASA, 18, 1946, 418-424

Miller, G.A., "The masking of speech", Psychological Bulletin, 44, 1947, 105-129

Hawkins, J.E. & Stevens, S.S., "Masking of pure tones and of speech by white noise", JASA, 22, 1950, 6-13

Fletcher (1953)

Miller & Nicely (1955)

Pickett, J.M., "Perception of vowels heard in noises of various spectra", JASA, 29, 1957, 613-620

Pickett, J.M. & Rubenstein, H., "Perception of consonant voicing in noise", Language & Speech, 3, 1960, 155-163

Speaks, C. & Carmen, J.L., "The effect of noise on synthetic sentence identification", JSHR, 4, 1967, 859-864

Busch, A.C. & Eldridge, D., "The effect of differing noise spectra on the consistency of the identification of consonants", Language & Speech, 10, 1967, 194-202

Keith, R.W. & Talis, H.P., "The effects of white noise on PB scores of normal and hearing impaired listeners", Audiology, 11, 1972, 177-186

f. Language and Context Factors

Miller, G.A., Heise, G.A. & Lichten, W., "The intelligibility of speech as a function of the context of test materials", J. Expt. Psych., 41, 1951, 329-335

Hirsh, I.J. et al, "The intelligibility of different speech materials", JASA, 26, 1954, 530-538

Rubenstein, H. et al, "Word length and intelligibility", Language and Speech, 2, 1959, 175-178

Giolas, T. & Epstein, A. "Comparative intelligibility of word lists & continuous discourse", JSHR, 6, 1963, 349-358

Rubenstein, H. & Pollack, I., "Word predictability and intelligibility", J. Verbal Learning & Verbal Behaviour, 2, 1963, 147-158

Traul, G.N. & Black, J.W., "The effects of context on the aural perception of words", JSHR, 8, 1965, 363-369

Giolas, T., "Comparative intelligibility scores of sentence lists and continuous discourse", J. Auditory Research, 6, 1966, 31-38

Speaks, C., "Performance-intensity characteristics of selected verbal materials", JSHR, 10, 1967, 344-347

Winitz, H. & LaRiviere, C., "Factors contributing to the recovery of monosyllabic words excerpted from natural speech", J.Phon., 7, 1979, 225-233

g. Word Frequency and Familiarity Effects

Egan, J.P., "Remarks on rare PB words", JASA, 29, 1957, 751

Rosenzwieg & Postman, L., "Intelligibility as a function of frequency of usage", J. Exp. Psych., 54, 1957, 412-422

Howes, D., "On the relation between the intelligibility and frequency of occurrence of English words", JASA, 29, 1957, 296-305

Owens, E., "Intelligibility of words varying in familiarity", JSHR, 4, 1961, 113-129

Schultz, M.C., "Word familiarity influences in speech discrimination", JSHR, 7, 1964, 395-400

Epstein, A. et al, "Familiarity and intelligibility of monosyllabic word lists", JSHR, 11, 1968, 435-438

Lezak, R.J. et al, "Bekesy-type audiometry for speech reception threshold", J. Aud. Res., 4, 1964, 181-189

h. Test Protocol Considerations

Egan (1948)

Hirsh, I.J. et al, "Development of materials for speech audiometry", JSHD, 17, 1952, 321-337

Thwing, E.J., "Effect of repetition on articulation scores for PB words", JASA, 28, 1956, 302-303

Traul & Black (1965)

Pollack, I., "Message repetition and message reception", JASA, 31, 1959, 1509-1515

Carhart, R., "Problems in the measurement of speech discrimination", Arch. Otolaryng., 82, 1965, 253-260 (also in Chaiklin et al, Hearing Measurement, 1982)

Kreul, E.J. et al, "Factors affecting speech discrimination test difficulty", JSHR, 12, 1969, 281-287

Nelson, D.A. & Chaiklin, J.B., "Write down versus talk back scoring and scoring bias in speech discrimination testing", JSHR, 13, 1970, 645-654

Williams, C.E. & Hecker, M.A.L., "Relations between intelligibility scores for four test methods and three types of speech distortion", JASA, 44, 1968, 1002-1006

Bode, D.L. & Carhart, R., "Measurements of articulation function using adaptive test procedures", IEEE Trans. Audio & Electroacoustics, 21 1973, 196-201

Williams, C.E. et al, "Effect of the closed response format on modified rhyme test scores", JASA, 53, 1973, 1169-1171

Bode, D.L. & Carhart, R., "Stability and accuracy of adaptive tests of speech discrimination scores", JASA, 56, 1974, 963-970

Wilson, R.H. et al, "A proposed SRT procedure and its statistical precedent", JSHD, 38, 1973, 184-191

Plomp, R. & Mimpen, A.M., "Improving the reliability of testing the speech reception threshold for sentences", Audiology, 18, 1979, 43-52

Lyregaard, P.E. et al, "A feasibility study of diagnostic speech audiometry", NPL Acoustics Report, Ac73, 1976

Dermody, P. & Katsch, R., "Procedures for equating amplitude of speech in intelligibility testing", Proc. 10th ICA, 1980

i. Listener Effects

Egan (1948)

Black, J.W. & Tolhurst, G.C., "The relative intelligibility of language groups", Quarterly J. Speech, 41, 1955, 57-60

Moser, H.M. & Dreher, J.J., "Effects of training on listener in intelligibility studies", JASA, 27, 1955, 1213-1219

Pollack, I. & Decker, L.R., "Confidence ratings, message reception, and the receiver operating characteristics", JASA, 30, 1958, 286-292

Milner, P., "Advantages of experienced listeners in intelligibility testing", IEEE Trans. Audio & Electroacoustics, 21, 1973, 161-165

Plomp, R. & Mimpen, A.M., "Speech-reception threshold for sentences as a function of age and noise level", JASA, 66, 1979, 1333-1342

Parker, D.E. et al, "Influence of auditory fatigue on masked speech intelligibility", JASA, 67, 1980, 1392-1893

Intelligibility Test Materials

a. Linguistic Considerations in Test Materials

Thorndike, E.L. & Lorge, I., The Teacher's Workbook of 30,000 Words, Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1944, 1968

Egan (1948)

Hirsh et al (1952)

West, M., A General Service List of English Words, Longmans, 1953, 1974

Schonell, F.J. et al, A Study of the Oral Vocabulary of Adults, Univ. Queensland Press, 1956

Lehiste, I. & Peterson, G.E., "Linguistic considerations in the study of speech intelligibility", JASA, 31, 1959, 280-286

Radford, W.C., A Word List for Australian Schools, A.C.E.R. 1960

Peterson, G.E. & Lehiste, I., "Revised CNC lists for auditory tests", JSHD, 27, 1962, 62-70

Denes, P.B., "On the statistics of spoken English", JASA, 35, 1963, 892-904

Sharwood, J. & Horton, I., "Phoneme frequencies in Australian English: A regional study", AUMLA, 26, 1966, 272-302

Howes, D., "A word count of spoken English", J. Verbal Learning & Verbal Behaviour, 5, 1966, 572-604

KuHera, H. & Francis, W.N., Computational Analysis of Present-day American English, Brown University Press, Providence, RI, USA, 1967

Mines, M.A. et al, "Frequency of occurrence of phonemes in conversational English", Language & Speech, 21, 1978, 221-241

b. PB Word Lists

Egan (1948)

Hirsh et al (1952)

Macrae, J.H. et al, "Standardisation of the Commonwealth Acoustical Laboratories recordings of the phonetically balanced monosyllabic word lists", J. Oto-Laryngological Soc. Aust., 1, 1963, 197-203

Elpern, B.S., "Differences in difficulty among the CID W-22 auditory test", Laryngoscope, 71, 1961, 30-36

Tillman, T.W. & Carhart, R., An Expanded Test for Speech Discrimination Utilizing CNC Monosyllables, AD639, 638, 1966 (Reprinted in J.B. Chaiklin (ed.), Hearing Measurement, Addison-Wesley, 1971)

Grant, J.M., "The CAL-PBM's: a misnomer?", Aust.J.Aud., 2, 1980, 19-24

Clark, J.E., "Four PB word lists for Australian English", Aust.J.Aud., 3, 1981, 21-31

c. Rhyme Tests

Black, J.W. & Haagen, "Multiple-choice intelligibility tests: Forms A and B", JSHD, 28, 1963, 77-86

Fairbanks, G., "Test of phonemic differentiation: the rhyme test", JASA, 30, 1958, 596-600

Black, J.W., "Multiple-choice intelligibility tests", JSHD, 22, 1957, 213-235

House, A.S. et al, "Articulation testing methods: Consonantal differentiation with a closed-response set", JASA, 37, 1965, 158-166

Kryter, K, & Whitman, E., "Some comparisons between rhyme and PB word intelligibility tests", JASA, 37, 1965, 1146

Griffiths, J.D., "Rhyming minimal contrasts: A simplified diagnostic articulation test", JASA, 42, 1967, 236-241

Kopra, L. et al, "Comparison of Fairbank's rhyme test and CID auditory test W-22 in normal and hearing-impaired listeners", JSHR, 11, 1968, 735-739

Bell, D.W. & Kreul, E.J., "Reliability of the modified rhyme test for hearing", JSHR, 15, 1972, 287-295

Nixon, J.C. "Investigation of the response foils of the modified rhyme hearing test", JSHR, 16, 1973, 658-666

d. Other Word-Level Tests

Hudgins, C.V. et al, "The development of recorded auditory tests for measuring hearing loss for speech", Laryngoscope, 57, 1947, 57-89

Egan (1948)

Boothroyd, A., "Developments in speech audiometry", Sound, 2, 1968, 3-10

Margolis, R.H. & Millin, J.P., "An item-difficulty based speech discrimination test", JSHR, 14, 1971, 865-873

Stevenson, P.W., "Response possibilities to the Boothroyd (AB) word lists", Brit. J. Audiol., 9, 1976, 85-89

Owens, E. & Schubert, E.D., "Development of the California consonant test", JSHR, 20, 1977, 463-474

Harris, J.D., "On the use of a three words-per-item format in test for the hearing of speech", JASA, 67, 1980, 345-347

Tillman, T.W. & Jerger, J., "Some factors affecting the spondee threshold in normal hearing subjects", JSHR, 2, 1959,141-146

e. Sentence Tests

Egan (1948)

Beranek (1949)

Hirsh (1952)

Fry, D.B., "Word and sentence tests for use in audiometry", The Lancet, 22, 1961, 197-199

Speaks, C. & Jerger, J., "Method for measurement of speech identification", JSHR, 8, 1965, 185-194

Speaks, C. et al, "Performance-intensity characteristics of selected verbal materials", JSHR, 10, 1967, 344-347

Speaks, C. et al, "Effect of a competing message on synthetic sentence identification", JSHR, 10, 1967, 390-395

Speaks, C. et al, "Comparison of sentence discrimination and conventional speech discrimination scores", JSHR, 13, 1970, 755-767

Giolas, T.G. & Duffy, J.R., "Equivalence of CID and revised CID sentence lists", JSHR, 16, 1973, 549-555

Duffy, J.R. & Giolas, T.G., "Sentence intelligibility as a function of key word selection", JSHR, 17, 1974, 631-637

Kalikow, D.N. et al, "Development of a test of speech intelligibility in noise using sentence materials with controlled word predictability", JASA, 61, 1977, 1337-1351

Owen, J.H., "Influence of acoustical and linguistic factors on the SPIN test difference score", JASA, 70, 1981, 678-682

Morgen, D.E. et al, "Form equivalence of the speech perception in noise (SPIN) test", JASA, 69, 1981, 1791-1798

f. Aspects of Continuous Speech Testing

Falconer, G.A. & Davis, A., "The intelligibility of connected discourse as a test for the 'threshold of speech'", Laryngoscope, 57, 1947, 581-595

Giolas, T. & Epstein, A., "Comparative intelligibility of word lists and continuous discourse", JSHR, 6, 1963, 349-358

Giolas, T., "Comparative intelligibility scores of sentence lists and continuous discourse", J. Auditory Res., 6, 1966, 31-38

Speaks, C., "A comparison of sentence and continuous discourse intelligibility scores", J. Auditory Res., 9, 1969, 294-297

Speaks, C. et al, "Intelligibility of connected discourse", JSHR, 1972, 590-602

Winitz, H. & LaRiviere, C., "Factors contributing to the recovery of monosyllabic words excerpted from natural speech", J.Phon., 7, 1979, 225-233

Pisoni, D., "Some measures of intelligibility and comprehension", in J. Allen (ed.) Conversion of Unrestricted English Text to Speech, MIT, 1979

Test Scoring and Analysis Methods

a. Numerical and Statistical Considerations

Black, J.W., "Responses to multiple choice intelligibility tests", JSHR, 11, 1968, 453-466

Boothroyd, A., "Statistical theory of the speech discrimination score", JASA, 43, 1968, 362-367

Engleberg, M., "Test retest variability in speech discrimination testing", Laryngoscope, 78, 1968, 1582-1589

Schubert, E. & Owens, E., "CVC words as test items", J.Aud.Res., 11, 1971, 88-100

Lyregaard, P.E., "On the statistics of speech audiometry data", NPL Acoustics Report, Ac63, 1973

Lyregaard (1976)

Hoode, J.D. & Poole, J.P., "Improving the reliability of speech audiometry", Brit. J. Audiol., 11, 1977, 93-101

Thornton, A.R. & Raffin, M.J.M., "Speech discrimination scores modelled as a binomial variable", JSHR, 21, 1978, 507-518

Raffin, M.J.M. & Thornton, A.R., "Confidence levels for differences between speech discrimination scores", JSHR, 1980, 5-18

Raffin, M.J.M. & Schafer, D., "Application of a probability model based on the binomial distribution to speech-discrimination scores", JSHR, 1980, 570-575

Clark (1981)

Dillon, H., "A quantitative examination of the scores of speech discrimination test score variability", NAL Report, 1981

b. Phonological Analysis

Miller & Nicely (1955)

Shepard, R.N., "Psychological representation of speech sounds", in E.E. David & P.B. Denes (ed.), Human Communication: A Unified View, McGraw-Hill, 1972

Wang, M.D. & Bilger, R.C., "Consonant confusions in noise: A study of perceptual features", JASA, 54, 1973, 1248-1266

Singh, S., "Distinctive Features: A measurement of consonant perception", in S. Singh, Measurement Procedures in Speech and Hearing, University Park Press, 1975

Clark, J.E., "Intelligibility comparisons for two synthetic and one natural speech source", J.Phon., 11, 1

Some references on Speech Audiometry (and other speech-related topics) in Australian Journal of Audiology (RF290.A94)

Byrne, D. & Christen, R. "Preferred listening levels and loudness of filtered speech", Aust.J.Aud. 1(1), 32-40.

Bench, J., Bamford, J.M., Wilson, I.M., & Clifft, L. "A comparison of the BKB sentence lists for children with other speech audiometric tests", Aust.J.Aud. 1(2), 61-66

Grant, J.M. "The CAL-PBM's: a misnomer?", Aust.J.Aud. 2(1), 19-21

Pearce, J.L. & Coles, R.R.A. "A contextual analysis of BKB(ST) sentence lists", Aust.J.Aud. 2(2), 63-69

Clark, J.E. "Four PB word lists for Australian English", Aust.J.Aud. 3(1), 21-31

Byrne, D. & Walker, G. "The effects of multichannel compression and expansion amplification on perceived quality of speech", Aust.J.Aud. 4(1), 1-8

Walker, G., Byrne, D., & Dillon, H. "Learning effects with a closed response set nonsense syllable test", Aust.J.Aud. 4(1), 27-31

Plant, G., Philips, D., & Tsembis, J. "An auditory-visual speech test for the elderly hearing impaired", Aust.J.Aud. 4(2), 62-

Robertson, S. & Plant, G. "An analysis of error responses for the CAL-PBM word lists", Aust.J.Aud. 5(1), 28-34

Byrne, D. "Word familiarity in speech perception testing of children", Aust.J.Aud.5(2), 77-80

Plant, G. "A diagnostic speech test for severly and profoundly hearing-impaired children", Aust.J.Aud. 6(1), 1-9

Walker, G. & Byrne, D. "Reliability of speech intelligibility estimation for measuring speech perception thresholds in quiet and in noise", Aust.J.Aud. 7(1) 23-31

Greville, K.H., Keith, W.J. & Laven, J.W. "Performance of children with previous OME on central auditory measures", Aust.J.Aud. 7(2), 69-78

Doyle, J. "Audiologists, the audiogram amd the perception of hearing-impaired children's speech", Aust.J.Aud. 9(1), 1-6

Bench, J., Doyle, J. & Greenwood, K.M. "A standardisation of the BKB/A sentence test for children in comparison with the NAL-CID sentence test and the CAL-PBM word test", Aust.J.Aud. 9(2), 39-48

Byrne, D. & Parkinson, A. "Reliability and sensitivity of intelligibility and pleasantness judgements of amplified speech", Aust.J.Aud. 9(2), 77-86

Smith, J., Tipping, V. & Bencj, J. "Discrimination of Boothroyd words by Greek and English speakers", Aust.J.Aud. 9(2), 87-91

Millett, A.F. "The speech evoked response: and audiological application", Aust.J.Aud. 10(2), 57-65

Beattie, R.C. & Tures, C. "Relationships between saturation sound pressure levels for pure tone and complex stimuli" Aust.J.Aud. 10(2), 67-74

Parkinson, A, Byrne, D. & Newall, P. "Aided speech sensation levels received by severely hearing-imapired listeners", Aust.J.Aud. 11(1), 27-36

Beattie, R.C. & Zipp, J.A. "Reliability of PB Max for monosyllabic words using the plateau averaging procedure", Aust.J.Aud. 12(1), 17-20

Plant, G. "The development of speech tests in Aboriginal languages", Aust.J.Aud. 13(1), 30-40

Kei, J. et al "Cantonese speech audiometry for children of Hong Kong", Aust.J.Aud. 13(2), 41-45

Journal Abbreviations

JASA Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
J.Phon. Journal of Phonetics
JSHR Journal of Speech and Hearing Research
JSHD Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
AUMLA Australian Universities Modern Languages Association