Skip to Content

Department of Linguistics

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY

Airstream and Laryngeal Features in Speech Production

Robert Mannell


Airstream

Source of Power Direction of Airflow
pulmonic (lung action) egressive
glottalic (larynx action) egressive or ingressive
velaric (tongue action) ingressive

For an overview of the IPA symbols for pulmonic, glottalic and velaric consonants, see:-

Laryngeal Settings

Recommended eading

Ladefoged, Chapter 6
Clark and Yallop, Chapters 2 (2.5 & 2.6), 6 (6.5 & 6.6)