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Department of Linguistics

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY

Five Laryngeal States

Robert Mannell

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Five Laryngeal States from Open to Closed Vocal Folds

OPEN Vocal Folds   VOICELESS
 
Vocal folds vibrating weakly and inefficiently, allowing large amounts of air to escape   BREATHY
also breathy voice, whispery voice, murmur
transcription: [ɐ̤]
 
Vocal folds vibrating normally   VOICED
 
Vocal folds vibrating tensely; the front part of the vocal folds stays closed;
fundamental frequency low
  CREAKY
also creak, vocal fry, creaky voice, anterior voice, laryngealised
transcription: [ɐ̰]
 
CLOSED Vocal Folds   GLOTTAL STOP
transcription: [ʔ]