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Department of Linguistics

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY

GENERAL PHONETICS REVISION EXERCISES

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The following exercises are provided to test your knowledge of the concepts dealt with in lecture topics 1-4 and 6 as well as the tutorial topic on the International Phonetic Alphabet. An answer sheet is also provided.

1. What are the active and passive articulators in the following:

  i. velar nasal stop
  ii. central uvular fricative
  iii. alveolar lateral approximant
  iv. velar ejective
  v. retroflex approximant

2. Provide phonetic notation for any three sounds produced on an ingressive airstream.

3. Provide phonetic notation for any five front vowels.

4. Provide phonetic notation for any three open (low) vowels.

5. Provide phonetic notation for any two different lateral consonants.

6. Circle the place(s) of articulation at which lateral consonants can be produced.

  bilabial labiodental alveolar uvular

7. Provide phonetic notation for any four sounds whose active articulator is the back of the tongue.

8. Which of the following combinations are not possible?

  active articulator passive articulator
  lower lip upper teeth
  back of tongue alveolar ridge
  back of tongue upper lip
  back of tongue uvula
  tongue tip hard palate
  tongue blade uvula

9.Which of the following productions are not possible?

  central nasal oral fricative
  central lateral nasal stop
  oral approximant
  lateral approximant
 

lateral fricative

  lateral nasal stop

10. Which vocal organ provides the main source of power in producing ejectives and implosives?

11. Briefly describe the production of clicks.

12. Define secondary articulation.

13. What diacritic is added when transcribing labialised sounds?

14. Circle the sounds that are produced with nasal airflow:

  l ɢ w v m ɔ̃ ǁŋ

15. Circle the labial sounds:

  v n ɹʷ u w

16. Circle the sounds in which the passive articulator is the uvular:

  k χ n u

17. Circle the sounds that are produced with complete closure at the alveolar ridge:

  s ɗ ɾ ʒ ɮ ɯ n

18. Provide phonetic names for the feature classes Laryngeal, Airstream, Place, Nasality, Stricture for the speech sounds listed below.

  i. m
  ii.
  iii. ɗ
  iv. ɡ
  v. ʁ
  vi. ʒ

19. Give phonetic notation for the following speech sounds:

  i. breathy alveolar lateral approximant
  ii. voiced retroflex oral stop
  iii. voiceless lateral fricative
  iv. creaky alveolar fricative
  v. alveolar lateral click

20. In a certain language, consonants are palatalised before close (high) front vowels and velarised before close (high) back vowels. Make any changes to the consonants on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

  i. t y
  ii. f ɯ
  iii. k i

21. In a certain language, close (high) vowels become glides (maintaining their fronting and rounding features) when they precede other close vowels. Make any changes to the vowels on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

  i. u y
  ii. ø ø
  iii. i i
  iv. i y
  v. ɯ u

22. What features do the groups of sounds have in common?

  i. m,b,ɸ   voiceless lateral bilabial approximant egressive
  ii. ç, j   breathy retroflex pulmonic palatal nasal
  iii. r,ʁ   voiced egressive trill tap fricative
  iv. z,n,l,zʲ   alveolar voiced nasal pulmonic fricative
  v. y, n,ø,ɶ,ɔ   front half-open close rounded voiced

23. Convert the following sounds into equivalent laterals:

  i. z
  ii. s

24. Convert the following sounds into equivalent fricatives:

  i. t
  ii. d
  iii. l

25. Convert the following into equivalent sounds produced with lip-rounding:

  i. θ
  ii. j

26. Briefly explain why the following notation is not possible:

  i.
  ii.
  iii.

27. Give a brief definition of what is meant by the following labels:

  i. glottalic
  ii. breathy
  iii. velarised
  iv. ingressive

28. Provide phonetic notation for any two speech sounds that conform to the following description:

  i. the soft-palate is lowered; the airstream mechanism is velaric
  ii. the vocal folds are completely closed at some stage during the production of the sound
  iii. the tip of the tongue makes a complete closure against the alveolar ridge
  iv. the blade of the tongue is raised towards the hard-palate but without making a complete closure

29. Define a diphthong

30. Give three criteria for distinguishing consonants from vowels

 

 

GENERAL PHONETICS
REVISION EXERCISES

ANSWER SHEET

1. What are the active and passive articulators in the following:

ACTIVE PASSIVE
i. velar nasal stop back of tongue soft palate
ii. central uvular fricative back of tongue uvula
iii. alveolar lateral approximant tongue tip alveolar ridge
iv. velar ejective back of tongue soft palate
v. retroflex approximant tongue tip hard palate

2. Provide phonetic notation for any three sounds produced on an ingressive airstream.

ɓ ɗ ǀ ǁ ǃ ǀŋ etc.

3. Provide phonetic notation for any five front vowels.

i e ɛ a y ø œ

4. Provide phonetic notation for any three open (low) vowels.

a ɑ ɒ œ

5. Provide phonetic notation for any two different lateral consonants.

l ɮ ɬ

6. Circle the place(s) of articulation at which lateral consonants can be produced.

alveolar

7. Provide phonetic notation for any four sounds whose active articulator is the back of the tongue.

k ɡ q ɢ ŋ etc.

8. Which of the following combinations are not possible?

  active articulator   passive articulator
  back of tongue   alveolar ridge
  back of tongue   upper lip
  tongue blade   uvula

9.Which of the following productions are not possible?

  central nasal oral fricative
  central lateral nasal stop
  lateral nasal stop

10. Which vocal organ provides the main source of power in producing ejectives and implosives?

  larynx

11. Briefly describe the production of clicks.

  i.   Complete closure achieved at the soft palate
  ii.   Another closure in front of velar occlusion
  iii.   Posterior occlusion slides back towards uvular
  iv.   Air pressure reduced between the two occlusions
  v.   Release of alveolar constriction
  vi.   Inflow of air to equalise pressure

12. Define secondary articulation.

  Simultaneous bilabial, palatal or velar approximant produced at the same time as a primary articulation which has a higher degree of stricture (usually stop stricture, occasionally fricative stricture) and which is produced at another place of articulation.

13. What diacritic is added when transcribing labialised sounds?

  The diacritic [ʷ] superscripted to the symbol of the primary articulation

14. Circle the sounds that are produced with nasal airflow.

  m ɔ̃ ǁŋ

15. Circle the labial sounds:

  v u w

16. Circle the sounds in which the passive articulator is the uvular:

  χ

17. Circle the sounds that are produced with complete closure at the alveolar ridge:

  ɗ ɾ n

18. Provide phonetic names for the feature classes Laryngeal, Airstream, Place, Nasality, Stricture for the speech sounds listed below.

         
Laryngeal
 
Airstream
 
Place
 
Nasality
 
Stricture
  i.   m  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
bilabial
 
nasal
 
stop
  ii.    
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
palatalised
alveolar
 
oral
 
fricative
  iii.   ɗ  
voiced
 
glottalic
 
alveolar
 
oral
 
stop
  iv.   g  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
velar
 
oral
 
stop
  v.   ʁ  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
uvular
 
oral
 
fricative
  vi.   ʒ  
voiced
 
pulmonic
 
palato-
alveolar
 
oral
 
fricative

19. Give phonetic notation for the following speech sounds:

  i.   breathy alveolar lateral approximant  
  ii.   voiced retroflex oral stop   ɖ
  iii.   voiceless lateral fricative   ɬ
  iv.   creaky alveolar fricative  
  v.   alveolar lateral click   ǁ or ǁŋ

20. In a certain language, consonants are palatalised before close (high) front vowels and velarised before close (high) back vowels. Make any changes to the consonants on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

  i.   t y    
  ii.   f ɯ    
  iii.   k i     or c

21. In a certain language, close (high) vowels become glides (maintaining their fronting and rounding features) when they precede other close vowels. Make any changes to the vowels on the left that precede the vowels on the right in accordance with this rule. If no change is necessary, write NC.

  i.   u y     w
  ii.   ø ø     NC
  iii.   i i     j
  iv.   i y     j
  v.   ɯ u     ɰ

22. What features do the groups of sounds have in common?

  i.   m,b,ɸ   bilabial egressive
  ii.   ç,j   pulmonic palatal
  iii.   r,ʁ   voiced egressive
  iv.   z,n,l,zʲ   pulmonic voiced alveolar
  v.   y, n, ø, ɶ,ɔ   voiced

23. Convert the following sounds into equivalent laterals:

  i.   z     ɮ
  ii.   s     ɬ

24. Convert the following sounds into equivalent fricatives:

  i.   t     s
  ii.   d     z
  iii.   l     ɮ

25. Convert the following into equivalent sounds produced with lip-rounding

  i.   θ     θʷ
  ii.   j     ɥ

26. Briefly explain why the following notation is not possible:

  i.     u is already labialised
  ii.     ejectives cannot be voiced
  iii.     only oral sounds can be aspirated

27. Give a brief definition of what is meant by the following labels:

  i.   glottalic   airstream involving laryngeal power source
  ii.   breathy   inefficient vocal fold vibration allowing escape of air
  iii.   velarised   secondary articulation involving raising the back of the tongue
  iv.   ingressive   inflowing air

28. Provide phonetic notation for any two speech sounds that conform to the following description:

  i.   the soft-palate is lowered; the airstream mechanism is velaric   ǀŋ ǁŋ ǃŋ
  ii.   the vocal folds are completely closed at some stage during the production of the sound   ʔ pʼ tʼ kʼ
  iii.   the tip of the tongue makes a complete closure against the alveolar ridge   t d n
  iv.   the blade of the tongue is raised towards the hard-palate but without making a complete closure   j ç

29. Define a diphthong

  When two vowels occur in a single syllable

30. Give three criteria for distinguishing consonants from vowels

  i.   acoustic   -   loudness
  ii.   physiological   -   oral impedance
  iii.   phonological   -   syllabic position